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Policy Brief Bidang Industri P ..

Adiarso

Title
:Policy Brief Bidang Industri Proses dan Energi 2020
Author
:Adiarso;

Abstract :

Policy brief atau ringkasan kebijakan merupakan  rangkuman dari hasil-hasil kajian pada tahun 2020 di Pusat Pengkajian Industri proses  Energi (PPIPE) Kedeputian Kebijakan Teknologi, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi. e-book dapat diakses melalui https://www.ppipe.bppt.go.id/ Read more..

Penguatan Ekonomi Berkelanjuta ..

Ira Fitriana

Title
:Penguatan Ekonomi Berkelanjutan Melalui Penerapan Kendaraan Berbasis Listrik
Author
:Ira Fitriana;

Abstract :

Pusat Pengkajian Industri Proses dan Energi (PPIPE) - BPPT telah melaksanakan kajian makro penyediaan energi untuk charging station. Kajian ini untuk mendukung program flagship inovasi teknologi charging station yang dilaksanakan oleh BPPT. Dalam rangka diseminasi hasil kajian tersebut, PPIPE menerbitkan buku ini.  Topik ini penting untuk dibahas sesuai dengan Peraturan Presiden No. 55/2019 tentang percepatan program kendaraan bermotor listrik berbasis baterai untuk transportasi jalan. Pemerintah mendorong pengembangan kendaraan bermotor listrik dalam negeri melalui regulasi yang sudah dikeluarkan. Para pelaku industri otomotif diharapkan segera merancang dan membangun pengembangan mobil listrik di Indonesia.  Kendaraan bermotor listrik memiliki kelebihan dibandingkan dengan kendaraan bermotor konvensional, antara lain adalah lebih hemat energi, kinerja lebih baik, dan lebih ramah lingkungan. Dari sisi lingkungan, kendaraan bermotor listrik tidak menimbulkan emisi polutan Read more..

Outlook Energi Indonesia 2020 ..

Adiarso

Title
:Outlook Energi Indonesia 2020 Edisi Khusus : Dampak Pandemi COVID-19 terhadap Sektor Energi di Indonesia
Author
:Adiarso; Edi Hilmawan; Agus Sugiyono;

Abstract :

Pandemi COVID-19 telah melanda Indonesia sejak kasus pertama terdeteksi dan diumumkan resmi oleh pemerintah pada awal bulan Maret 2020. Setelah itu, jumlah kasus yang terkonfirmasi positif bertambah banyak dan meluas ke seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Beberapa kebijakan penanggulangan COVID-19 mulai diberlakukan, diantaranya dengan menerapkan pembatasan sosial berskala besar (PSBB). Pemberlakuan PSBB ini berdampak pada hampir seluruh sektor kehidupan sosial ekonomi. Sektor energi termasuk yang terdampak cukup signifikan dengan adanya pandemi COVID-19 ini. Di sektor komersial, banyak yang mengurangi jam operasinya sehingga berakibat pada penurunan kebutuhan energi di sektor tersebut. Di sektor transportasi, kebutuhan bahan bakar minyak (BBM) berkurang drastis karena adanya pembatasan operasional moda transportasi (jumlah pesawat,  transportasi umum yang beroperasi) dan  efek  dari penerapan kebijakan work from home (WFH). Secara global,  menurunnya kebutuhan BBM menyeb Read more..

Seasonal variation of pelagic ..

Nani Hendiarti

Title
:Seasonal variation of pelagic fish catch around Java
Author
:Nani Hendiarti; Edvin Aldrian; Suwarso;

Abstract :

We present data on the seasonal variability of small pelagic fish catches and their relation to the coastal processes responsible for them around the island of Java. This study uses long fish-catch records (up to twenty years) collected at various points around Java that were selected from the best-quality harbor records. Seven years of ocean color satellite data were also used in this study. The study selected four regions that represent the four edges of Java. Data analysis shows that the annual fish-catch pattern is determined by monsoonal activity. The monsoon greatly influences the appearance of warm and rich surface currents in the Java Sea, surface water transport and upwelling in the Sunda Strait, upwelling in the Indian Ocean, and indirect upwelling in the Bali Strait (for details on the regional oceanography, see Gordon [this issue]). These coastal processes, which differ for each region, influence fish catch and fish distribution. The natural Read more..

Review of technologies for bio ..

M. Prussi

Title
:Review of technologies for biomethane production and assessment ofEu transport share in 2030
Author
:M. Prussi; M. Padella; M. Conton;

Abstract :

The upgrade to biomethane allows extending biogas applications to transport sectors, supporting EU goals toward carbon neutrality. Biomethane produced from biogas upgrading can today rely on a large number of plants, estimated by the European Biogas Association in over 17000 in 2016, for a total installed capacity of 9985 GW (EBA, 2017). After 2020, biogas and biomethane will count towards the 32% target of renewable energy share of the EU energy consumption, and towards a sub-target of minimum 14% of the energy consumed in the transport sector by 2030 (REDII). In this framework, the paper aims to define the current market penetration of biogas upgrading technologies. A database has been created for EU-28, to highlight the relative importance of each technology. Based on the database, a EU production potential is defined, along with the EU demand potential for transport, in order to verify the match between supply and demand. The analysis of the current state of play of the sector s Read more..

Energy, Economic and Environme ..

Abdul-Sattar Nizami

Title
:Energy, Economic and Environmental Savings by Waste Recycling
Author
:Abdul-Sattar Nizami; Muhammad Naqvib; Mouhammad Rehan;

Abstract :

In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), millions of worshippers come from across the globe to perform religious rituals of Pilgrimage (Hajj) and Umrah. Madinah-tul-Munawara is one of the holiest city, where pilgrims come after performing rituals in Makkah. In this city, most of the collected municipal solid waste (MSW) is disposed of in the landfills after a partial recycling of paper, cardboard, and metals (~10-20% of total MSW). The Saudi’s government has recently launched a new policy of Vision 2030, which outlined the safeguard of local environment through increased efficiency of waste recycling and management, pollution prevention strategies and generating renewable energy from indigenous sources, including the waste. Currently, the recycling practices in KSA are mainly regulated by an informal sector through waste pickers or waste scavengers. Read more..

Biogas Production from Biomass ..

Srisuda Chaikitkaew

Title
:Biogas Production from Biomass Residues of Palm Oil Mill by Solid State Anaerobic Digestion
Author
:Srisuda Chaikitkaew; Prawit Kongjan; Sompong O-Thong;

Abstract :

Solid state anaerobic digestion is a safe and environmental friendly technology to dispose solid wastes, could produce methane and reduce the volume of wastes. Three biomass residues from palm oil mill plant including empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm press fiber (PPF) and decanter cake (DC) were evaluated for methane production by solid state anaerobic digestion. Oil palm biomass was mixed with inoculum at F/I ratio of 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1 and 6:1 based on the volatile solid (VS). Results show that among the five F/I ratios tested, the F/I ratio of 2:1 gave the highest methane yield and methane production for all biomass residues. The highest cumulative methane production of 2180 mLCH4 was obtained from EFB followed by PPF (1964 mL CH4) and DC (1827 mL CH4) at F:I ratio of 2:1. The highest methane yield of 144 mL CH4/gVS was obtained from EFB followed by PPB (140 mLCH4/gVS) and DC (130 mLCH4/gVS) at F/I ratios of 2:1. Methane production from EFB, PPF and DC by SS-AD was 55, 47 and 41 m Read more..

Review dan analisis degister t ..

Hana Hermawan

Title
:Review dan analisis degister tank dengan fluida POME berdasarkan API 650 menggunakan variable design point method
Author
:Hana Hermawan; Winda Wulandari;

Abstract :

POME merupakan produk samping dari produksi minyak kelapa sawit dengan rasio terkandung dalam kelapa sawit 58,3%. POME dapat dimanfaatkan untuk dijadikan biogas dengan teknologi pengolahan proses anaerobik menggunakan tangki berpengaduk/Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). Tujuan dari kajian ini adalah melakukan review dan analisis digester tank dengan fluida POME berdasarkan standar American Petroleum Institute yaitu API 650: Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage menggunakan variable design point method untuk menentukan ketebalan minimum pada setiap shell tergantung pada kedalamannya, sehingga setiap shell dapat memiliki ketebalan yang berbeda sehingga dapat memperkecil volume material dan biaya. Kemudian dilakukan simulasi dengan metode elemen hingga dengan beban dari tekanan hidrostatik yang menghasilkan tegangan maksimum 154,88 MPa, serta deformasi maksimum 5 mm dan beban dari gaya angin yang menghasilkan tegangan maksimum 1,31 MPa, serta deformasi maksimum 0,5 mm, lalu dibandin Read more..

Biomethane production via anae ..

Li, Hailong

Title
:Biomethane production via anaerobic digestion and biomassgasification
Author
:Li, Hailong; Daheem Mehmood; Eva Thorin;

Abstract :

The transport sector accounts for the second biggest greenhouse gas emission in the European Union (EU). In order to achieve the target of CO2 emission reduction there is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. Biomethane can be produced through anaerobic digestion or biomass gasification. Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process. Since the raw gas contains approximately 65vol% CH4 and 35vol%, an upgrading process is needed to remove CO2. Göteborg biomass gasification project (GoBiGas) is the world's first demonstration plant for large-scale production of biomethane through the gasification of forest residues. To achieve high purity CH4, a methanation process is required after gasification. This work compares these two technologies from the perspective of energy efficiency. Simulation results show that they have similar efficiencies: 62-64% for AE and ∼65% for GoBiGas. Read more..

Bioenergy power generation imp ..

Cantika Setya Permatasari

Title
:Bioenergy power generation improved through biomass co-firing a viewpoint of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method
Author
:Cantika Setya Permatasari; Johan Fahrizki; Nugroho Adi Sasongko;

Abstract :

The coal-fired power plant is the most dominant in the world where it currently fueled about 38% of global electricity. This is due to the relatively cheap price of coal and high calories produced. On the other hand, emissions generated by coal-fired power plants are quite large compared to other types of power plants, while all countries are working to reduce global warming, one of which is by reducing CO2 emissions. Utilizing renewable energy is one of the solutions in efforts to reduce the use of fossil energy so that there is a decrease in CO2. Biomass is renewable energy which is currently widely used as fuel for electricity generation, biomass fuel can be used 100% for a plant called biomass power plant and can also be a coal-fired power plant with a certain percentage mix. Many researchers conducted an analysis using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to determine the emissions produced differences between coal-fired power plants compared to the Biomass co-firing system. Read more..

The impacts of a biofuel use o ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:The impacts of a biofuel use on the gas turbine operating performance
Author
:Irhan Febijanto;

Abstract :

The use of Pure Plant Oil (PPO) as a fuel blend in a power plant is mandatory as stipulated in the Ministerial Decree of Energy and Mineral Resource of the Republic of Indonesia. However, the implementation of PPO used in power generation has many obstacles due to a lack of information concerning the impacts of PPO used in the operating performance of the power generation engine. In this study, the effect of PPO as a blended fuel with High-Speed Diesel (HSD) was studied by using the gas turbine with a capacity of 18 MW. The PPO was blended based on volume with a ratio of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%. As the results, it is shown that the use of PPO with a blend ratio of 20% is the maximum fuel blend ratio according to the threshold value of a flue gas temperature and a vibration velocity in the gas turbine. Read more..

Simulation Study for Economic ..

Maizirwan Mel

Title
:Simulation Study for Economic Analysis of Biogas Production fromAgricultural Biomass
Author
:Maizirwan Mel; Ariff Syamin Hisham Yong; Avicenna;

Abstract :

A process of anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass was simulated by SuperPro Designer software v 8.5 to analyze the cost of production. The simulated project used fruits and vegetable wastes as a feedstock. The concentration of methane produced is 55 % (v/v) from a total of 936.8 m3 . h–1 biogas and after purification, the concentration of methane is upgraded up to 95 % (v/v). The system was designed to treat the agricultural waste, and was able to reduce more than 60 % of the initial COD (chemical oxygen demand). From the study, economic analysis shows that the profit margin is achieved at 11 % and the rate of return of investment is at 12 % which gives a payback period of 8.2 years. Read more..

Co-production of hydrogen and ..

Arif Darmawan

Title
:Co-production of hydrogen and power from palm mill wastes
Author
:Arif Darmawan; Muhammad W. Ajiwibowo; Anggoro Cahyo F.;

Abstract :

An integrated system to harvest efficiently the energy from palm mill wastes, which are empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system adopts the supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of mixed EFB and POME, which is integrated with also with chemical looping and power generation. To minimize the exergy loss throughout the system, and therefore, optimize the energy efficiency, process design and integration is conducted by employing the principles of exergy recovery and process integration technologies. Hydrogen is set as the main output, while power is produced by utilizing the heat generated throughout the process. Process simulation is conducted using a steady state process simulator Aspen Plus V8.8. Energy efficiency is defined into three categories: hydrogen production efficiency, power generation efficiency, and total energy efficiency. From process simulation, the integrated systems show high total energy efficiency. Read more..

Comprehensive evaluation of in ..

Nugroho Adi Sasongko

Title
:Comprehensive evaluation of integrated energy plantation model of palm oil and microalgae based biofuel for sustainable energy production
Author
:Nugroho Adi Sasongko; Ryozo Noguchi;

Abstract :

Microalgae is a biofuel crop that needs large amounts of water and nutrients in cultivation stage and requires excessive energy at the downstream processes. 7his study presented an integrated plantation concept to accomplish these issues by material and energy balance optimization of microalgae based biodiesel production cycle. Significant potency of positive energy balance by utilizing agriculture waste water from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) was comprehensively investigated. However, POME has rich nutrient compounds for microalgae growth and its utilization reduces energy penalty. The total energy balance indicated substantial figures, in range of 2.66 up to 3.05 or even higher following the system efficiency. Meanwhile, total energy output for 1 production cycle in 10 ha microalgae pond approximately 160 GJ and net energy produced reaches 100 GJ. Based on current best available methods or technologies, microalgae cultivation for biofuels by using wastewater provide a positive en Read more..

Pemilihan fixed head atau free ..

Samdi Yarsono

Title
:Pemilihan fixed head atau free head dalam desain fundasi tangki reaktor kap. 2000 m3 pilot plant biogas pome setara 700 kw di PTPN V Riau
Author
:Samdi Yarsono; Lan Marrakup TN; Ika Wulandari;

Abstract :

Kebutuhan energi terbarukan di Indonesia sangatlah penting, saat ini sumber energi terbarukan porsinya relatif kecil. BPPT ( Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi) dalam kegiatannya melakukan pembangunan pilot plant Biogas Pome setara 700 kW berkerjasama dengan PTPN V (PT. Perkebunan Nusantara V) dengan sistim tangki berpengaduk secara kontinu yang mana hasil gas tersebut dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan bakar boiler pabrik PMKS di sei pagar. Metode pemilihan pondasi tangki reaktor dengan kapasitas 2000m3, kami melakukan perbandingan perhitungan antara menggunakan free head atau fix head dengan memakai diameter 50cm dan 60cm dengan melihat banyaknya jumlah, diameter pile dan ketebalan mat yang digunakan. Diameter rencana tangki reactor direncanakan berukuran 16.8m dengan ketinggian 9m, dengan beban tangki sekitar 2174.2ton dan berdasarkan data dari soil test didapat nilai N-SPT di kedalaman 10-15m, untuk itu kami merumuskan bahwa fundasi pile yang kita pilih. Perbandingan fix and free Read more..

Optimalisasi Pemanfaatan Gas M ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Optimalisasi Pemanfaatan Gas Metana sebagai Sumber Energi di Pabrik Kelapa Sawit
Author
:Irhan Febijanto;

Abstract :

Pada akhir Maret 2017, telah dikeluarkan regulasi baru oleh pemerintah terkait harga jual listrik. Sayangnya, harga jual listrik yang baru ini lebih rendah dari pada harga jual listrik sebelumnya. Penetapan harga baru ini dianggap akan menurunkan tingkat keekonomian dari pengoperasian pembangkit listrik tenaga biogas (PLTBg), sehingga pembangunan PLTBg di Indonesia menjadi kurang menarik bagi para investor. Kondisi ini sangat tidak baik bagi iklim pembangunan energi terbarukan di Indonesia. Untuk itu berdasarkan studi kasus pembangunan PLTBg Terantam, Riau maka direkomendasikan pemanfaatan gas metana tidak hanya sebagai bahan bakar PLTBg saja tetapi juga sebagai pengganti sebagian bahan bakar cangkang di boiler PKS. Makalah ini membuktikkan kenaikan tingkat keekonomian dari hasil penjualan cangkang untuk PLTBg dengan kapasitas 1.025 kW. Estimasi ketersediaan jumlah gas metana dilakukan dengan menggunakan metodologi UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Deng Read more..

Chaterization of Jatropha curc ..

Praptiningsih G. Adinurani

Title
:Chaterization of Jatropha curcas Linn. Capsule Husk as Feedstockfor Anaerobic Digestion
Author
:Praptiningsih G. Adinurani;

Abstract :

Jatropha curcas Linn. capsule husk (DH-JcL) is a residu from the manufacture of Crude Jatropha Oil. Biorefinery as part of the “four R’s” was required in DH-JcL for anaerobic digestion feedstock. Analysis result and literature study was concluded that DH-JcL is a material that can be managed as biogas substrate, though the nutrient levels relatively low, and a number of other material such as volatile solid, carbohydrates, cellulose ad lignin was relatively high. The establishment of DH-JcL required two phase digestion as anaerobic microbial pretreatment and pre-acidification. The efficiency of two-phase digestion was able to increase the number of technology i.e. additives; recycling of slurry; variation in operational parameters and fixed film or biofilters utilization Read more..

Potensi produksi dan ekonomi b ..

Lili Zalizar

Title
:Potensi produksi dan ekonomi biogas serta implikasinya pada kesehatanmanusia, ternak dan lingkungan
Author
:Lili Zalizar; Rahayu Relawati; Bambang Yudi Ariyadi;

Abstract :

The purpose of this research was to find out biogas production on national scale, Malang District, and one of the villages in Ngantang, Malang District. Besides, the aim of this research is to find out the influence of biogas digester on human health, animal, and environment. This research was done using literature study and secondary data taken from Sumber Makmur Cooperation in Ngantang and Animal Health and Livestock Bureau in Malang District. The result of this research shows the potency of biogas production in Indonesia is huge. The amount of cows and cattles in Indonesia is around 15 million heads could produce biogas 9 million m3 /day or 3285 million m3 /month. If 1 m3 biogass equal to 0,62 lt gasoline, so 3285 million m3 /month biogass equal to 2,036 billion of gasoline. If biogass used by Indonesian people as alternative energy, so it can save Rp 22,4 billion/year (price of gasoline Rp 11.000). The amount of cows and cattles in Malang District were 315.326 heads and pot Read more..

Economic Analysis Of Cikaso Mi ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Economic Analysis Of Cikaso Mini Hydro Power Plant As A CDM Project For Increasing IR
Author
:Irhan Febijanto;

Abstract :

Renewable energy fueled power generations are few developed by private sector in Indonesia. High-cost investment and low electricity selling price to PT PLN as a single buyer is main barriers for private sector to involve in the development of renewable energy fueled power generations. In this project, the economic feasibility of Mini Hydro Power Plant of Cikaso with capacity of 5.3 MW, located at Sukabumi Regency, West Java province was assessed. This project utilized revenue generated from carbon market to increase the economic feasibility. Procedure to register the project to United Nation for Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) as a Clean Development Mechanism project was explained in detail. Approved Consolidation Methodology (ACM) 0002 Version 12.3.0 was used to calculate grid emission factor in Jawa-Bali-Madura the grid electricity system. It was calculated that the grid emission factor is 0.833 (t-CO2/MWh), and the carbon emission reduction generated for this project is 21,98 Read more..

Agro-techniques of selected me ..

National Medicinal Plants Board, India

Title
:Agro-techniques of selected medicinal plants (volume 1)
Author
:National Medicinal Plants Board, India;

Abstract :

India has a rich heritage of plant-based health care systems like Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha, which have a very high degree of societal acceptance as they provide quality health care to a large segment of our population. A recent study by the NMPB (National Medicinal Plants Board) has highlighted the fact although about 6000 plants are used in the folk and documented systems of medicine in India, less than 50 species of medicinal plants are cultivated to any sizeable extent. The NMPB has the primary mandate of supporting programmes relating to conservation and development of medicinal plants. While conservation of medicinal plant resources in situ is the major component of the schemes of the board, promoting cultivation of medicinal plants is also of equal, if not greater, importance, considering the potential that medicinal plants offer for crop diversification and income generation. Read more..

Stability and Ductility of Ste ..

Wald, Frantisek

Title
:Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures 2019
Editor
:Wald, Frantisek; Jandera, Michal;

Abstract :

For more than forty years the series of International Colloquia on Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures has been supported by the Structural Stability Research Council (SSRC). Its objective is to present the latest results in theoretical, numerical and experimental research in the area of stability and ductility of steel and steel-concrete composite structures. In Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures 2019, the focus is on new concepts and procedures concerning the analysis and design of steel structures and on the background, development and application of rules and recommendations either appearing in recently published Codes or Specifications and in emerging versions, all in anticipation of the new edition of Eurocodes. The series of International Colloquia on Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures started in Paris in 1972, the last Read more..

Electromagnetic Wave Scatterin ..

Sukharevsky, Oleg I.

Title
:Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects
Author
:Sukharevsky, Oleg I.;

Abstract :

Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects presents the theory, original calculation methods, and computational results of the scattering characteristics of different aerial and ground radar objects. This must-have book provides essential background for computing electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of different kinds of irregularities, as well as Summarizes fundamental electromagnetic statements such as the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and the image principle Contains integral field representations enabling the study of scattering from various layered structures Describes scattering computation techniques for objects with surface fractures and radar-absorbent coatings Covers elimination of "terminator discontinuities" appearing in the method of physical optics in general bistatic cases Includes radar cross-section (RCS) statistics and high-range resolution profiles of assorted Read more..

Alternative Fuels for Transpor ..

Ramadhas, A S

Title
:Alternative Fuels for Transportation
Author
:Ramadhas, A S;

Abstract :

Exploring how to counteract the world's energy insecurity and environmental pollution, this volume covers the production methods, properties, storage, engine tests, system modification, transportation and distribution, economics, safety aspects, applications, and material compatibility of alternative fuels. The esteemed editor highlights the importance of moving toward alternative fuels and the problems and environmental impact of depending on petroleum products. Each self-contained chapter focuses on a particular fuel source, including vegetable oils, biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, hydrogen, electric, fuel cells, and fuel from nonfood crops. Read more..

Solar Module Packaging ..

Poliskie, Michelle

Title
:Solar Module Packaging
Author
:Poliskie, Michelle;

Abstract :

Exploring current and future opportunities in PV polymeric packaging, this work offers an insider's perspective on the manufacturing processes and needs of the solar industry and reveals opportunities for future material development and processing. Suitable for nonspecialists in polymer science, it provides a basic understanding of polymeric concepts, fundamental properties, and processing techniques commonly used in solar module packaging. The book also presents guidelines for using polymers in commercial PV modules as well as the tests required to establish confidence in the selection process. Read more..

Ekosistem pantai Indonesia ..

Indroyono Soesilo

Title
:Ekosistem pantai Indonesia
Editor
:Indroyono Soesilo; Widyawati; Lia Kusumawati;

Abstract :

Visi pembangunan kelautan adalah wilayah pesisir dan laut beserta segenap sumber daya dan jasa-jasa yang terkandung didalamnya merupakan sumber penghidupan dan sumber pembangunan yang harus dimanfaatkan secara berkelanjutan guna meningkatkan kemakmuran rakyat menuju terwujudnya bangsa indonesia yang sejahtera, maju dan mandiri.  Buku ini menyajikan berbagai hasil penelitian dasar yang dilakukan di daaerah pantai dan sekitarnya. Dua buah penelitian menunjukkan karakteristik pantai yang sesuai bagi pengembangan dan tersebarnya beberapa jenis benthos. Empat penelitian lain mengkaji pengaruh gejala alam yang terjadi di laut yakni tsunami, siklon, dan upwelling terhadap wilayah daratannya.   Read more..

Safety and Reliability Safe ..

Haugen, Stein

Title
:Safety and Reliability Safe Societies in a Changing World
Editor
:Haugen, Stein; Barros, Anne; van Gulijk, Coen;

Abstract :

Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World will be invaluable to academics and professionals working in a wide range of industrial and governmental sectors: offshore oil and gas, nuclear engineering, aeronautics and aerospace, marine transport and engineering, railways, road transport, automotive engineering, civil engineering, critical infrastructures, electrical and electronic engineering, energy production and distribution, environmental engineering, information technology and telecommunications, insurance and finance, manufacturing, marine transport, mechanical engineering, security and protection, and policy making. Read more..

Distillation control, optimiza ..

Robbins, Lanny

Title
:Distillation control, optimization, and tuning : fundamentals and strategies
Author
:Robbins, Lanny;

Abstract :

Emphasis on improved quality and performance of distilled products and the demand for reduced operating costs place a heavy burden on both the personnel responsible for profitability and the manufacturing department charged with operating the processing equipment. There have been dramatic improvements in the computer software and hardware used to simulate and model the distillation process and potential response to experimentation, but mastering the art of distillation process and control still requires solid understanding of a large body of information. With a focus on achieving product purity at low cost, Distillation Control, Optimization, and Tuning: Fundamentals and Strategies highlights core concepts. These include process variables for continuous binary distillation columns and the four basic control strategies, the distillate and bottoms product quality performance objectives, and the tuning o Read more..

Municipal Solid Waste Manageme ..

Hanifrahmawan Sudibyo

Title
:Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indonesia
Author
:Hanifrahmawan Sudibyo; Yano Surya Pradana; Arief Budiman;

Abstract :

Recently, the amount of Yogyakarta province municipal solid waste (MSW) came into Piyungan landfill site stood at around 470 ton/day consisting of 77% organic and 23% inorganic fractions. Annually, there was an increase as many as 8% per annum for the amount of MSW. Reduction of the MSW can be "forced" in integrated waste management site (in Indonesia is called TPST) which was built in the municipal level. In each TPST, there are two main activities which are Recycling and Composting. Both scenarios assume that 23% of inorganic waste can be recycled so that the subsequent need is to manage organic waste. Based on these considerations, calculations performed with: 1). Scenario 1: The TPST has been operated but there is no waste reduction at the source; 2). Scenario 2: TPST is operated and followed by solid waste reduction at the source. If the second scenario is applied, the amount of waste that goes to landfill Piyungan can be reduced up to 200 ton/day. Actually, scenario 1 is the r Read more..

Biogas Utilization for support ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Biogas Utilization for supporting the Sustainability of Palm Oil Mill
Author
:Irhan Febijanto;

Abstract :

Indonesia, as the largest palm oil production country, currently facing various criticisms from European countries related to environmental issues from Crude Palm Oil industries. One way to reduce the criticism impacts, is to obtain a certificate related to the sustainability of Crude Palm Oil industries, which issued by a national or even an international body. Based on the sustainability standards, POM (Palm Oil Mill) should prevent the gas emission/ methane gas generated from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) which emitted to the atmosphere. By captured methane gas and utilize as fuel for the boiler (biogas co-firing) or fuel for the gas engine for captive power, the emission gas amount emitted to the atmosphere can be reduced. All selected technologies in this study utilize biogas/methane gas. The economic analysis of each selected technology is assessed by using an economic parameter of IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value). It is proved that the biogas power pl Read more..

Skema JCM (joint crediting Mec ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Skema JCM (joint crediting Mechanism) pada investasi fasilitas pemurnian biogas di pabrik kelapa sawit
Author
:Irhan Febijanto;

Abstract :

Until now, the use of biogas in Palm Oil Mill (POM) is still limited to use as a fuel for Biogas Power Plant or utilize an additional boiler fuel. The use of biogas to be taken to other places is constrained by the remote location of POM and the transportation method. However, by converting biogas into bio-CNG, it can be used as vehicle fuel. The investment feasibility study of bio-CNG production facilities was carried out for two case studies, in POM with a capacity of 30 t/hr and 60 t/hr. The funding uses 100% of the equity fund and subsidy of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) scheme. Using the JCM scheme, the value of investment gets 50% funding assistance, and carbon credits from the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions belong to the Japanese government. As a result of the study, it is known that the development of bio-CNG production facilities with 100% equity, IRR of both POM is below 11.08%, so it is not economically feasible. From the sensitivity analysis, it indica Read more..

Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) ..

Aminullah Mohtar

Title
:Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Biogas Techno-Economic Analysis for Utilisation as Bio Compressed Natural Gas
Author
:Aminullah Mohtar; Wai Shin Ho; Ahmad Muzammil Idris;

Abstract :

The production of palm oil will continue to rise with increasing demand of fats and oils. The increase of palm oil production will result in high production of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is polluting due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). High COD and BOD of POME has the advantage to produce large amount of biogas through anaerobic digestion (AD). As upgraded biogas has equal composition to natural gas, it can be potentially used as compressed natural gas (CNG) or also known as bio-CNG. Bio-CNG at its current state is too expensive for implementation where subsidies are required to enable the technology, especially for countries where energy price is low such as in Malaysia. This paper studies on the economic potential of the bio-processing technology which consists of an anaerobic digester, purification unit, and compression up to 20 MPa as the biogas will be utilised as CNG. The parameter that is considered in the economic analysi Read more..

Kajian Tekno Ekonomi Upgrading ..

Agus Sugiyono

Title
:Kajian Tekno Ekonomi Upgrading Biogas Berbasis POME Dengan Teknologi Water Scrubber
Author
:Agus Sugiyono; Asmi Rima Juwita;

Abstract :

Biometana dari POME (palm oil mill effluent) merupakan energi terbarukan yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai substitusi gas alam dan LPG. Produksi biometana dapat mencapai 10% dari konsumsi gas bumi saat ini atau setara dengan 20% dari konsumsi LPG bila keseluruhan kapasitas produksi pabrik kelapa sawit dioptimalkan. Salah satu teknologi untuk produksi biometana yang sudah komersial untuk skala industri adalah water scrubber. Penerapan teknologi ini, khususnya di pabrik kelapa sawit Sei Pagar, Riau dengan kapasitas 250 Nm3 /jam, belum ekonomis. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk melakukan kajian tekno ekonomi upgrading biogas berbasis POME dengan teknologi water scrubber. Berdasarkan hasil kajian yang dilakukan, biaya investasi upgrading biogas plant mencapai 53,2 miliar rupiah, sedangkan biaya operasi dan perawatannya mencapai 8,3 miliar rupiah. Harga biometana masih lebih mahal dari pada harga gas bumi sebesar 5,62 USD/MMBTU. Pada harga gas di atas 18,5 USD/MMBTU, upgrading biogas plant laya Read more..

Harga Jual BioCNG dari Palm Oi ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Harga Jual BioCNG dari Palm Oil Mill Effluent sebagai Sumber Energi Alternatif
Author
:Irhan Febijanto;

Abstract :

Indonesia sebagai produsen minyak kelapa sawit terbesar di dunia juga memiliki potensi terbesar untuk produksi limbah minyak kelapa sawit. Air limbah ini menghasilkan biogas yang berkontribusi terhadap pemanasan global, dan pemanfaatan biogas mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca dari gas metana. Dengan meningkatkan konsentrasi gas metana dalam biogas, dan meningkatkan tekanan gas biometana, yang disebut bioCNG (Compressed Natural Gas), pemanfaatan gas lebih mudah dalam transportasi dan kandungan energi gas meningkat. Dalam tulisan ini, penilaian ekonomi fasilitas produksi bioCNG di sebuah Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS) dengan kapasitas 60 ton/jam dilakukan. Biaya investasi diperkirakan berdasarkan laju aliran biogas yang dihasilkan dari digester aerobik di POM. Dengan menggunakan teknologi laguna tertutup untuk digester anaerob, dan teknologi membran untuk pemurnian gas, berdasarkan peraturan perdagangan gas alam yang ditetapkan, harga jual bioCNG ditentukan oleh 10,27 USD/MMBTU dengan IRR 12 Read more..

Tekno Ekonomi Pemanfaatan Biog ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Tekno Ekonomi Pemanfaatan Biogas Berbasis POME untuk Pembangkit Listrik, Bahan Bakar Boiler, dan BioCNG
Author
:Irhan Febijanto; Novio Valentino;

Abstract :

Pemanfaatan biogas untuk pembangkit, bahan bakar boiler, atau bahan bakar kendaraan harus mempertimbangkan kelayakan baik secara teknis maupun ekonomi.Makalah ini membahas kelayakan secara ekonomi dari pemanfaatan biogas untuk 3 skenario tersebut dengan diambil kasus khusus untuk diterapkan di salah satu pabrik kelapa sawit (PKS) di Provinsi Riau.Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa pemanfaatan biogas POME (palm oil mill effluent) untuk ketiga skenario tersebut layak untuk dilaksanakan.Indikator kelayakan finansial menunjukkan nilai NPV yang positif dan nilai IRR yang lebih tinggi daripada tingkat diskonto. Dari ketiga skenario tersebut, skenario pemanfaatan biogas menjadi listrik merupakan skenario yang paling layak untuk dilaksanakan berdasarkan nilai indikator kelayakannya, yaitu dengan nilai IRR 14,22%, NPV sebesar Rp 11.474.070.468 dan periode pengembalian proyek selama 9 tahun 2 bulan. Namun bila dilihat dari kebutuhan biaya investasi dan biaya operasionalnya, skenario pemanfaa Read more..

Nanoparticle engineering for c ..

Paik, Ungyu

Title
:Nanoparticle engineering for chemical-mechanical planarization
Author
:Paik, Ungyu; Jea-Gun Park;

Abstract :

In the development of next-generation nanoscale devices, higher speed and lower power operation is the name of the game. Increasing reliance on mobile computers, mobile phone, and other electronic devices demands a greater degree of speed and power. As chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) progressively becomes perceived less as black art and more as a cutting-edge technology, it is emerging as the technology for achieving higher performance devices. Nanoparticle Engineering for Chemical-Mechanical Planarization explains the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles according to each step in the CMP process, including dielectric CMP, shallow trend isolation CMP, metal CMP, poly isolation CMP, and noble metal CMP. The authors provide a detailed guide to nanoparticle engineering of novel CMP slurry for next-generation nanoscale devices below the 60nm design rule. They present design techniques using Read more..



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