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Biogas Utilization for support ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Biogas Utilization for supporting the Sustainability of Palm Oil Mill
Author
:Irhan Febijanto;

Abstract :

Indonesia, as the largest palm oil production country, currently facing various criticisms from European countries related to environmental issues from Crude Palm Oil industries. One way to reduce the criticism impacts, is to obtain a certificate related to the sustainability of Crude Palm Oil industries, which issued by a national or even an international body. Based on the sustainability standards, POM (Palm Oil Mill) should prevent the gas emission/ methane gas generated from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) which emitted to the atmosphere. By captured methane gas and utilize as fuel for the boiler (biogas co-firing) or fuel for the gas engine for captive power, the emission gas amount emitted to the atmosphere can be reduced. All selected technologies in this study utilize biogas/methane gas. The economic analysis of each selected technology is assessed by using an economic parameter of IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value). It is proved that the biogas power pl Read more..

Skema JCM (joint crediting Mec ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Skema JCM (joint crediting Mechanism) pada investasi fasilitas pemurnian biogas di pabrik kelapa sawit
Author
:Irhan Febijanto;

Abstract :

Until now, the use of biogas in Palm Oil Mill (POM) is still limited to use as a fuel for Biogas Power Plant or utilize an additional boiler fuel. The use of biogas to be taken to other places is constrained by the remote location of POM and the transportation method. However, by converting biogas into bio-CNG, it can be used as vehicle fuel. The investment feasibility study of bio-CNG production facilities was carried out for two case studies, in POM with a capacity of 30 t/hr and 60 t/hr. The funding uses 100% of the equity fund and subsidy of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) scheme. Using the JCM scheme, the value of investment gets 50% funding assistance, and carbon credits from the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions belong to the Japanese government. As a result of the study, it is known that the development of bio-CNG production facilities with 100% equity, IRR of both POM is below 11.08%, so it is not economically feasible. From the sensitivity analysis, it indica Read more..

Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) ..

Aminullah Mohtar

Title
:Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Biogas Techno-Economic Analysis for Utilisation as Bio Compressed Natural Gas
Author
:Aminullah Mohtar; Wai Shin Ho; Ahmad Muzammil Idris;

Abstract :

The production of palm oil will continue to rise with increasing demand of fats and oils. The increase of palm oil production will result in high production of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is polluting due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). High COD and BOD of POME has the advantage to produce large amount of biogas through anaerobic digestion (AD). As upgraded biogas has equal composition to natural gas, it can be potentially used as compressed natural gas (CNG) or also known as bio-CNG. Bio-CNG at its current state is too expensive for implementation where subsidies are required to enable the technology, especially for countries where energy price is low such as in Malaysia. This paper studies on the economic potential of the bio-processing technology which consists of an anaerobic digester, purification unit, and compression up to 20 MPa as the biogas will be utilised as CNG. The parameter that is considered in the economic analysi Read more..

Kajian tekno ekonomi upgrading ..

Agus Sugiyono

Title
:Kajian tekno ekonomi upgrading biogas berbasis POME dengan teknologi water scrubber
Author
:Agus Sugiyono; Asmi Rima Juwita;

Abstract :

Biometana dari POME (palm oil mill effluent) merupakan energi terbarukan yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai substitusi gas alam dan LPG. Produksi biometana dapat mencapai 10% dari konsumsi gas bumi saat ini atau setara dengan 20% dari konsumsi LPG bila keseluruhan kapasitas produksi pabrik kelapa sawit dioptimalkan. Salah satu teknologi untuk produksi biometana yang sudah komersial untuk skala industri adalah water scrubber. Penerapan teknologi ini, khususnya di pabrik kelapa sawit Sei Pagar, Riau dengan kapasitas 250 Nm3 /jam, belum ekonomis. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk melakukan kajian tekno ekonomi upgrading biogas berbasis POME dengan teknologi water scrubber. Berdasarkan hasil kajian yang dilakukan, biaya investasi upgrading biogas plant mencapai 53,2 miliar rupiah, sedangkan biaya operasi dan perawatannya mencapai 8,3 miliar rupiah. Harga biometana masih lebih mahal dari pada harga gas bumi sebesar 5,62 USD/MMBTU. Pada harga gas di atas 18,5 USD/MMBTU, upgrading biogas plant laya Read more..

Harga Jual BioCNG dari Palm Oi ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Harga Jual BioCNG dari Palm Oil Mill Effluent sebagai Sumber Energi Alternatif
Author
:Irhan Febijanto;

Abstract :

Indonesia sebagai produsen minyak kelapa sawit terbesar di dunia juga memiliki potensi terbesar untuk produksi limbah minyak kelapa sawit. Air limbah ini menghasilkan biogas yang berkontribusi terhadap pemanasan global, dan pemanfaatan biogas mengurangi emisi gas rumah kaca dari gas metana. Dengan meningkatkan konsentrasi gas metana dalam biogas, dan meningkatkan tekanan gas biometana, yang disebut bioCNG (Compressed Natural Gas), pemanfaatan gas lebih mudah dalam transportasi dan kandungan energi gas meningkat. Dalam tulisan ini, penilaian ekonomi fasilitas produksi bioCNG di sebuah Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS) dengan kapasitas 60 ton/jam dilakukan. Biaya investasi diperkirakan berdasarkan laju aliran biogas yang dihasilkan dari digester aerobik di POM. Dengan menggunakan teknologi laguna tertutup untuk digester anaerob, dan teknologi membran untuk pemurnian gas, berdasarkan peraturan perdagangan gas alam yang ditetapkan, harga jual bioCNG ditentukan oleh 10,27 USD/MMBTU dengan IRR 12 Read more..

Tekno ekonomi pemanfaatan biog ..

Irhan Febijanto

Title
:Tekno ekonomi pemanfaatan biogas berbasis POME untuk pembangkit listrik, bahan bakar boiler, dan bioCNG
Author
:Irhan Febijanto; Novio Valentino;

Abstract :

Pemanfaatan biogas untuk pembangkit, bahan bakar boiler, atau bahan bakar kendaraan harus mempertimbangkan kelayakan baik secara teknis maupun ekonomi.Makalah ini membahas kelayakan secara ekonomi dari pemanfaatan biogas untuk 3 skenario tersebut dengan diambil kasus khusus untuk diterapkan di salah satu pabrik kelapa sawit (PKS) di Provinsi Riau.Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa pemanfaatan biogas POME (palm oil mill effluent) untuk ketiga skenario tersebut layak untuk dilaksanakan.Indikator kelayakan finansial menunjukkan nilai NPV yang positif dan nilai IRR yang lebih tinggi daripada tingkat diskonto. Dari ketiga skenario tersebut, skenario pemanfaatan biogas menjadi listrik merupakan skenario yang paling layak untuk dilaksanakan berdasarkan nilai indikator kelayakannya, yaitu dengan nilai IRR 14,22%, NPV sebesar Rp 11.474.070.468 dan periode pengembalian proyek selama 9 tahun 2 bulan. Namun bila dilihat dari kebutuhan biaya investasi dan biaya operasionalnya, skenario pemanfaa Read more..

Nanoparticle engineering for c ..

Paik, Ungyu

Title
:Nanoparticle engineering for chemical-mechanical planarization
Author
:Paik, Ungyu; Jea-Gun Park;

Abstract :

In the development of next-generation nanoscale devices, higher speed and lower power operation is the name of the game. Increasing reliance on mobile computers, mobile phone, and other electronic devices demands a greater degree of speed and power. As chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) progressively becomes perceived less as black art and more as a cutting-edge technology, it is emerging as the technology for achieving higher performance devices. Nanoparticle Engineering for Chemical-Mechanical Planarization explains the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles according to each step in the CMP process, including dielectric CMP, shallow trend isolation CMP, metal CMP, poly isolation CMP, and noble metal CMP. The authors provide a detailed guide to nanoparticle engineering of novel CMP slurry for next-generation nanoscale devices below the 60nm design rule. They present design techniques using Read more..

Industry 4.0 and regional tran ..

De Propris, Lisa

Title
:Industry 4.0 and regional transformations
Author
:De Propris, Lisa; Bailey, David;

Abstract :

This edited volume brings together a group of expert contributors to explorebthe opportunities and the challenges that Industry 4.0 (smart manufacturing) is likely to pose for regions, fi rms and jobs in Europe. Drawing on theory and empirical cases, it considers emerging issues like servitization, new innovation models for local production systems and the increase in reshoring. Industry 4.0 and Regional Transformations captures the complexity of this new manufacturing model in an accessible way and considers its implications for the future. It will be essential reading for advanced students and researchers and policy makers in regional studies, industrial policy, economic geography, innovation studies, operations management and engineering. Read more..

From waste to value ..

Klitkou, Antje

Title
:From waste to value
Editor
:Klitkou, Antje; Martin Fevolden, Arne; Capasso, Marco;

Abstract :

From Waste to Value investigates how streams of organic waste and residues can be transformed into valuable products, to foster a transition towards a sustainable and circular bioeconomy. The studies are carried out within a cross-disciplinary framework, drawing on a diverse set of theoretical approaches and defining different valorisation pathways. Organic waste streams from households and industry are becoming a valuable resource in today’s economies. Substances that have long represented a cost to companies and a burden for society are now becoming an asset. Waste products, such as leftover food, forest residues and animal carcasses, can be turned into valuable products such as biomaterials, biochemicals and biopharmaceuticals. Exploiting these waste resources is challenging, however. It requires that companies develop new technologies and that public authorities introduce new regulation and governance models. This book helps policy-makers govern an Read more..

Internal Combustion Engines an ..

IMECHE

Title
:Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems for Future Transport 2019
Author
:IMECHE;

Abstract :

With the changing landscape of the transport sector, there are also alternative powertrain systems on offer that can run independently of or in conjunction with the internal combustion (IC) engine. This shift has actually helped the industry gain traction with the IC Engine market projected to grow at 4.67% CAGR during the forecast period 2019-2025. It continues to meet both requirements and challenges through continual technology advancement and innovation from the latest research. With this in mind, the contributions in Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems for Future Transport 2019 not only cover the particular issues for the IC engine market but also reflect the impact of alternative powertrains on the propulsion industry. The main topics include: • Engines for hybrid powertrains and electrification • IC engines • Fuel cells • E-machines &bul Read more..

Analytical heat transfer ..

Je-Chin Han

Title
:Analytical heat transfer
Author
:Je-Chin Han;

Abstract :

Developed from the author’s 30 years of teaching a graduate-level intermediate heat transfer course, Analytical Heat Transfer explains how to analyze and solve conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer problems. Suitable for entry-level graduate students, the book fills the gap between basic heat transfer undergraduate courses and advanced heat transfer graduate courses. The author places emphasis on modeling and solving engineering heat transfer problems analytically, rather than simply applying the equations and correlations for engineering problem calculations. He describes many well-known analytical methods and their solutions, such as Bessel functions, separation of variables, similarity method, integral method, and matrix inversion method. He also presents step-by-step mathematical formula derivations, analytical solution procedures, and numerous demonstration examples of heat transfer app Read more..

Utilization of Fly Ashes from ..

Ohenoja, Katja

Title
:Utilization of Fly Ashes from Fluidized Bed Combustion
Author
:Ohenoja, Katja; Pesonen, Janne; Yliniemi, Juho;

Abstract :

Traditionally fly ash is thought to be glassy, spherical particle originating from pulverized coal combustion (PCC) at temperature up to 1700 °C. However, nowadays fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology is spreading quickly around the world as it is an efficient and environmentally friendly method. FBC is also able to utilize mixtures of low-grade solid fuels (e.g., coal, lignite, biomass, and waste) that have fluctuating quality, composition, and moisture contents. However, this leads to a high variation in the produced fly ash quality, unlike PCC fly ash, and hence challenges when attempting to utilize this fly ash. In this study, the utilization of fluidized bed combustion fly ash (FBCFA) was reviewed using the Scopus database. The most promising utilization target for FBCFA from biomass combustion is as a fertilizer and soil amendment. In construction, the FBCFA from various fuels is utilized as cement replacement material, in non-cement binders, as lightweight aggregates Read more..

SOFC power plant with circulat ..

Volkova Yulia V

Title
:SOFC power plant with circulating fluidized bed gasifier
Author
:Volkova Yulia V; Munts Vladimir; Choynzonov Dmitry B;

Abstract :

Coal is used all over the world to meet the energy needs of industry and housing and communal services. The main requirements of coal using are environmental safety and efficiency. Increasing these parameters can be realized with the combination of a gasifier and fuel cells. The paper includes a variant of the thermal scheme of the power plant, which uses coal as a fuel, with its further gasification and conversion into electrical energy in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The developed scheme differs from traditional circuits by using a gasifier with an inhibited circulating fluidized bed (ICFB). In addition, the anode-off gases are used in the combustion chamber of the gasifier to maintain endothermic gasification reactions. This technologies combination allows increasing the energy system efficiency. The paper also includes the results of tests of an ICFB gasifier and analyze the available electrical power of the SOFC stacks. Analysis dependence EMF from the produced genera Read more..

Properties of Controlled Low S ..

Lin, Wei-Ting

Title
:Properties of Controlled Low Strength Material with Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash and Recycled Aggregates
Author
:Lin, Wei-Ting; Weng, Tsai-Lung; Hsu, Hui-Mi;

Abstract :

This study aims to investigate the effect of adding circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ash, desulfurization slag, air-cooled blast-furnace slag and coal bottom ash to the controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Test methods include slump flow test, ball drop test, water soluble chloride ion content measurement, compressive strength and length change measurement. The results show that (1) the use of CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag of slump flow is the best, and the use of CFBC hydration ash with coal bottom ash and slump flow is the worst; (2) CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag and chloride ion content is the highest; (3) 24 h ball drop test (diameter ≤ 76 mm), and test results are 70 mm to 76 mm; (4) CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag and compression strength is the highest, with the coal bottom ash being the lowest; increase of CFBC hydration ash can reduce compressive strength; and (5) the water-quenched blast furnace slag and CFBC Read more..

Integration of gas switching c ..

Carlos Arnaiz del Pozo

Title
:Integration of gas switching combustion and membrane reactors for exceeding 50% efficiency in flexible IGCC plants with near-zero CO2 emissions
Author
:Carlos Arnaiz del Pozo; Cloete, Schalk; Chiesa, Paolo;

Abstract :

Thermal power plants face substantial challenges to remain competitive in energy systems with high shares of variable renewables, especially inflexible integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC). This study addresses this challenge through the integration of Gas Switching Combustion (GSC) and Membrane Assisted Water Gas Shift (MAWGS) reactors in an IGCC plant for flexible electricity and/or H2 production with inherent CO2 capture. When electricity prices are high, H2 from the MAWGS reactor is used for added firing after the GSC reactors to reach the high turbine inlet temperature of the H-class gas turbine. In periods of low electricity prices, the turbine operates at 10% of its rated power to satisfy the internal electricity demand, while a large portion of the syngas heating value is extracted as H2 in the MAWGS reactor and sold to the market. This product flexibility allows the inflexible process units such as gasification, gas treating, air separation unit and CO2 compressio Read more..

Integration of Coal Gasificati ..

Spallina, Vincenzo

Title
:Integration of Coal Gasification and Packed Bed CLC process for High Efficiency and Near-zero Emission Power Generation
Author
:Spallina, Vincenzo; Romano, Matteo C.; Chiesa, Paolo;

Abstract :

The DemoCLOCK (Demonstration of a cost effective medium size Chemical Looping Combustion through packed beds using solid hydrocarbons as fuel for power production with CO2 capture) project is co-financed by the European Commission and is being developed by a consortium of 11 partners from 7 European countries. The objec- tive of the project is to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility for implementing packed bed based high temperature and high pressure chemical looping combustion in large-scale power plants. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary results of a process simulation study of Integrated Gasification Chemical Looping Combustion (IG-CLC) plants, based on packed bed CLC reactors. The performance of complete IG-CLC power plants, including the coal gasification system, the CLC process and the power island, are predicted. Two configurations are addressed. In the first one, a gas-steam combined cycle is used, where the high temperature O2- Read more..

Coal Chemical-Looping Combusti ..

Authier, Olivier

Title
:Coal Chemical-Looping Combustion for Electricity Generation: Investigation for a 250 MWe Power Plant
Author
:Authier, Olivier; Le Moullec, Yann;

Abstract :

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is generally based on interconnected fluidized beds where a solid oxygen carrier provides the oxygen for combustion in a fuel reactor (FR). The reduced oxygen carrier is then regenerated to oxidized state in an air reactor (AR) before being recycled to FR to complete the loop. CLC may be suitable and highly promising for power plants with near-zero CO2 emissions. This paper presents, from process thermodynamic modelling, a theoretical investigation of coal chemical-looping combustion for electricity generation with usual steam cycle. The technical issue of unburned compounds minimization at FR outlet is examined through direct oxygen injection in FR. Heat recovery systems are combined on the one hand with a supercritical seam cycle suited to low corrosivity of depleted air from AR, and on the other hand with a sub-critical steam cycle used in open-loop for steam production to fluidize oxygen carrier in FR and gasify char obtained from coal pyrolysis Read more..

Fluidised bed oxy-fuel gasific ..

Xiangyi Long

Title
:Fluidised bed oxy-fuel gasification of coal: Interactions between volatiles and char at varying pressures and fuel feed rates
Author
:Xiangyi Long; Nicolas Spiegl; Millan, Marcos;

Abstract :

Fluidised bed gasification is a versatile technology in terms of load flexibility and ability to process various fuels. However, fluidised bed gasification processes are usually air-blown, making integration with CO2 capture difficult and expensive. Operation of a fluidised bed gasifier with O2/recycled CO2 mixtures has been proposed as a route to overcome this drawback. In this work, the effect of pressure and fuel feed rate on the extent of gasification of German lignite in a CO2 rich atmosphere has been examined in a fluidised bed reactor (FBR). A 19% decrease in carbon conversion with increasing pressure from 5 to 20 bara was observed. The higher fuel feeding rates needed to maintain the gasification agent to coal ratio in the FBR at high pressures produces a larger concentration of tars in the reactor, which seems to cause deposition, by intra and inter particle reaction, on the char and reduces its reactivity. Read more..

Co-Firing of Oil Palm Empty Fr ..

Priatna Suheri

Title
:Co-Firing of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch and Kernel Shell in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor: Optimization of Operating Variables
Author
:Priatna Suheri; Vladimir I. Kuprianov;

Abstract :

Palm kernel shell and empty fruit bunch (as secondary fuel) were co-fired in a fluidized-bed combustor using alumina sand as bed material to prevent bed agglomeration. During the experiments, the fuels were injected into the reactor at different levels ensuring constant heat input, while the energy fraction of secondary fuel (EF2) was ranged from 0 to 0.25 with excess air (EA) of 20–80%. The study revealed significant effects of EF2 and EA on the CO, CxHy, and NO emissions, as well as on the combustion efficiency of the combustor. Cost-based optimization aimed at minimizing “external” costs of the biomass–biomass co-combustion was applied to determine the optimal values of EF2 and EA. Under optimal operating conditions, the combustor can be operated with high (about 99%) combustion efficiency at minimum emission costs, while reducing the NO emission roughly by 35% compared to firing pure palm kernel shell. Read more..

Long-term Carbonate Looping Te ..

Helbig, Martin

Title
:Long-term Carbonate Looping Testing in a 1 MWth Pilot Plant with Hard Coal and Lignite
Author
:Helbig, Martin; Hilz, Jochen; Haaf, Martin;

Abstract :

Abstract | Full Text The carbonate looping process is an efficient carbon capture technology to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by fossil fueled power and industrial plants. The presented work discusses the results gained in four test campaigns, each four weeks long, performed in a 1 MWth carbonate looping pilot plant at Technische Universität Darmstadt. The flue gas was provided by a coal fired furnace. The calciner was fired in a recirculated oxy-fuel combustion mode, i.e. where coal was burned with oxygen and flue gas was recirculated to moderate the temperature. The objective of these test campaigns with optimized configuration was to improve and to scale up the process into an industrial size. During the campaigns, the type of fuel, sorbent, flue gas composition, reactor design, and operating conditions were varied to investigate long-term effects on the pe Read more..

Fischer-tropschliquid Fuel Pro ..

Guo, P

Title
:Fischer-tropschliquid Fuel Production by Co-gasification of Coal and Biomass in a Solar Hybrid Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier
Author
:Guo, P; Saw, W; Eyk, P. van;

Abstract :

A coal to liquid (CTL) polygeneration process with a solar hybrid dual fluidized bed (SDFB) gasifier (SCTL) is investigated in recently processing paper. A storage unit was integrated to store sensible heat in bed material in order to reduce the influence of solar resource transience. In this paper, a Fischer-Tropsch liquid fuel production system via solar hybrid co-gasification of coal and biomass in SDFB gasifier (SCBTL) is investigated. The energetic and environmental performanceof the SCBTL system is assessed as a function of the biomass ratio and char conversion. It is found that the performance of the SCBTL system is found to be less sensitive to char conversion in the gasification reactor (Xchar,g) than the SCTL system.As theXchar,g decreases from 100% to 57%, the annually averaged solar share of the SCTL system is reduced from 24% to 0, while the solar share of the SCBTL system with wood fraction (higher heating value basis) of 0.5 and 1only decreases to 7% and 13% respectiv Read more..

Design of a 20 MWth Carbonate ..

Junk, M

Title
:Design of a 20 MWth Carbonate Looping Pilot Plant for CO2-capture of Coal Fired Power Plants by Means of Limestone
Author
:Junk, M; Kremer, J; Ströhle, J;

Abstract :

The feasibility of the post combustion process Carbonate Looping has been confirmed through operation of various test rigs at different scales worldwide. This work describes the development of a 1 MWth test rig to a 20 MWth pilot plant, shows some important and essential test results of the 1 MWth plant and presents a basic design study with a final setup of the 20 MWth pilot. The erection and operation of a pilot plant in a scale of 20 MWth is considered as a further milestone with regard to a large scale application of this technology. Read more..

Chemical Looping for Pre-combu ..

C, Hari

Title
:Chemical Looping for Pre-combustion and Post-combustion CO2 Capture
Author
:C, Hari; Mantripragada; Rubin, Edward S.;

Abstract :

In the paper, performance models are developed for two CO2 capture technologies – (a) a chemical looping combustion (CLC) process for pre-combustion CO2 capture from the syngas of a coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant; and (b) a CaL cycle for post-combustion CO2 capture from a pulverized coal (PC) power plant –and used to conduct detailed thermodynamic analyses of IGCC and PC power plants with the respective chemical looping-based CO2 capture processes. Results from the performance models are used to estimate the capital cost ($/kW) and operating cost ($/MWh) of each capture process as well as the complete power plant. Results of the case studies using the techno-economic model indicate that, in terms of performance, both of the chemical looping technologies modelled here are thermodynamically much better than conventional CO2 capture technologies, resulting in lower overall plant energy penalties. However, both the technologies are found Read more..

Experiences from Oxy-fuel Comb ..

Hofbauer, G

Title
:Experiences from Oxy-fuel Combustion of Bituminous Coal in a 150 kWth Circulating Fluidized Bed Pilot Facility
Author
:Hofbauer, G; Beisheim, T; Dieter, H;

Abstract :

The oxy-fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed was investigated in a 150 kWth pilot facility. A mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas was used for the combustion of bituminous coal. The experiments were set to observe the influence of operating conditions on gas concentrations of CO and NOX along with solid burn out. The results in regard to the difference between air and oxy-fuel atmosphere as well as an increase of the inlet oxygen concentration are presented in this paper and compared with results from other research groups. Read more..

Co-firing of coal and rice str ..

Unchaisri, Thanet

Title
:Co-firing of coal and rice straw pellet in a circulating fluidized-bed reactor
Author
:Unchaisri, Thanet; Suneerat Fukuda;

Abstract :

This paper presents the experimental investigation of co-firing of coal with rice straw pellet in terms of combustion efficiency, gaseous emissions (CO, NOx and SO2) and occurrence of bed agglomeration. The influence of excess air ratio (EA) and mass share of rice straw in the mixed fuel were investigated in a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor. The fuel feed rate was fixed at 14 kg/hr, while the air supply was varied to achieve EA 1.28-1.94. Rice straw pellet was mixed with coal at 25% and 50% mass fraction. The results show that increasing EA generally reduced CO emission. However, at excessively high EA, CO emission started to rise due to the insufficient residence time for complete combustion and the cooling effect. The CO emission clearly reflected the combustion efficiency trend. Higher CO emission was also found when increasing biomass, which may be influenced by the lower combustion temperature and the incomplete combustion of biomass volatiles. NOx and SO2 em Read more..

Repowering Options for Complyi ..

Butler, David

Title
:Repowering Options for Complying with Canadian CO2 Emission Intensity Limits on Existing Coal Plants
Author
:Butler, David; Hume, Scott; Scott, Stephen;

Abstract :

The Canadian federal government has introduced carbon dioxide emission intensity limits of no greater than 420 kg/MWh net for new coal plants and existing coal plants more than 50 years of age. Many operating coal plants in Canada will be impacted by this legislation in the near future, requiring operators to plan a compliance strategy. The Canadian Clean Power Coalition (CCPC) investigated the performance and economics of a number of options for existing plants that could deliver compliant solutions. These options included strategies in which natural gas is available and some in which only coal firing is feasible due to cost or logistical issues. Repowering and post-combustion capture (PCC) options were studied using an eastern Canadian power plant firing bituminous coal. The base-case (BC) option was a new combined-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant, against which all other options were compared. The following cases were investigated: 1) PCC using: a) Monoethanolamine MEA solvent with Read more..

Post-combustion CO2 capture fr ..

Jiang, L

Title
:Post-combustion CO2 capture from a natural gas combined cycle power plant using activated carbon adsorption
Author
:Jiang, L; Gonzalez-Diaz, A; Ling-Chin, J;

Abstract :

As fossil fuel power plants have emitted significant quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere which aggravates climate change, capturing and storing such emissions is key to mitigate the issue. An adsorption system based on a physical adsorbent i.e. activated carbon is first assessed to capture CO2 emissions from a natural gas combined cycle. Then a subcritical sequential supplementary firing combined cycle with CO2 capture is used to analyse the effect of CO2 concentration. Analyses are carried out in terms of power loss and thermal efficiency. To evaluate the advantages of post-combustion CO2 capture using activated carbon, results are compared with systems using a commercial absorbent, i.e. monoethanolamine and a chemical adsorbent i.e. polyethyleneimine/silica. The net efficiency of natural gas combined cycle using activated carbon increases slightly from 50.8% to 51.1% due to the lower regeneration temperature at 358 K. The performance of the system using PEI/ Read more..

Clean Coal Technologies in Chi ..

Chang, Shiyan

Title
:Clean Coal Technologies in China: Current Status and Future Perspectives
Author
:Chang, Shiyan; Zhuo, Jiankun; Meng, Shuo;

Abstract :

Coal is the dominant primary energy source in China and the major source of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. To facilitate the use of coal in an environmentally satisfactory and economically viable way, clean coal technologies (CCTs) are necessary. This paper presents a review of recent research and development of four kinds of CCTs: coal power generation; coal conversion; pollution control; and carbon capture, utilization, and storage. It also outlines future perspectives on directions for technology research and development (R&D). This review shows that China has made remarkable progress in the R&D of CCTs, and that a number of CCTs have now entered into the commercialization stage. Read more..

Feasibility study on the carbo ..

Ströhle, Jochen

Title
:Feasibility study on the carbonate looping process for post-combustion CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants
Author
:Ströhle, Jochen; Galloy, Alexander; Epple, Bernd;

Abstract :

The Carbonate Looping process is a promising technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from power plants by means of CaO in a system of two fluidized bed reactors. The present study focuses on the retrofit with re-powering of an existing 1052 MWel coal-fired power plant. Material and energy balances of the process have been performed using ASPEN PLUS. The effect of make-up mass flow on circulating flow, coal feed to the calciner, electrical output, net plant efficiency, and CO2 capture efficiency is discussed. The energy penalty of 2.75% points is much lower than that of other CO2 capture technologies. Read more..

Progress and prospects of inno ..

Yang, Yongping

Title
:Progress and prospects of innovative coal-fired power plants within the energy internet
Author
:Yang, Yongping; Li, Chengzhou;

Abstract :

The development of electrical engineering and electronic, communications, smart power grid, and ultra-high voltage transmission technologies have driven the energy system revolution to the next generation: the energy internet. Progressive penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources into the energy system has led to unprecedented challenges to the currently wide use of coal-fired power generation technologies. Here, the applications and prospects of advanced coal-fired power generation technologies are analyzed. These technologies can be summarized into three categories: (1) large-scale and higher parameters coal-fired power generation technologies, including 620/650/700 °C ultra-supercritical thermal power and double reheat ultra-supercritical coal-fired power generation technologies; (2) system innovation and specific, high- efficiency thermal cycles, which consist of renewable energy-aided coal-fired power generation technologies, a supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle for Read more..

Optimization of Stage Numbers ..

Pirklbauer, Julius

Title
:Optimization of Stage Numbers in a Multistage Fluidized Bed Temperature Swing Adsorption System for CO2 Capture
Author
:Pirklbauer, Julius; Hofbaue, Hermann;

Abstract :

A dual loop multi stage fluidized bed process for continuous temperature swing adsorption (TSA) of CO2 is investigated using a thermodynamic process model. The operating case is chosen in accordance with a typical post-combustion CO2 capture process, i.e. 90% CO2 capture rate from a gas stream with 10 vol% CO2 content. Steam is used as the stripping agent on the desorber side. Adsorption thermodynamic data for an amine functionalized sorbent material are employed based on adsorption isotherm data from the literature using the Langmuir model. The optimum stage number on both adsorber and desorber side are investigated with respect to achieve high energy efficiency of the separation process. This means that a low stripping steam demand and a low solids circulation rate are desired. The results show that both solids circulation rate and stripping steam demand are low for configurations with multiple stages for both the adsorber and the desorber. The effect of additional stages is high Read more..

Distribution of rare earth ele ..

Kolker, Allan.

Title
:Distribution of rare earth elements in coal combustion fly ash, determined by SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe
Author
:Kolker, Allan.; Scott,Clint; Hower, James C.;

Abstract :

During coal combustion for electric power generation, rare earth elements (REE) are strongly retained in the ash fraction leading to significant enrichment compared to the REE content of the respective feed coals. Knowing how the REE are distributed in coal ash is essential to devising effective approaches for REE extraction from this potential resource. To better understand the distribution of REE in coal ash, we used the Stanford-USGS SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe to determine grain-scale REE partitioning in a suite of 19 U.S. and international coal fly ash samples. SHRIMP-RG microanalysis used a nominal spot size of 15μm and an oxygen negative-ion primary beam. NIST multi-element glass standards SRM 611 and SRM 613 were used for REE calibration. Prior to SHRIMP-RG analysis, samples were characterized by backscattered electron imaging and wavelength-dispersive elemental mapping to delineate constituents of interest for REE microanalysis. Results confirm the occurrence of REE in alum Read more..

Near-Zero Air Pollutant Emissi ..

Shumin Wang

Title
:Near-Zero Air Pollutant Emission Technologies and Applications for Clean Coal-Fired Power
Author
:Shumin Wang;

Abstract :

Coal is the dominant energy source in China, and coal-fired power accounts for about half of coal consumption. However, air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants cause severe ecological and environmental problems. This paper focuses on near-zero emission technologies and applications for clean coal-fired power. The long-term operation states of near-zero emission units were evaluated, and synergistic and special mercury (Hg) control technologies were researched. The results show that the principle technical route of near-zero emission, which was applied to 101 of China’s coal-fired units, has good adaptability to coal properties. The emission concentrations of particulate matter (PM), SO2, and NOx were below the emission limits of gas-fired power plants and the compliance rates of the hourly average emission concentrations reaching near-zero emission in long-term operation exceeded 99%. With the application of near-zero emission technologies, the generating costs in Read more..

Development of the Three-Tower ..

Shi-Ying Lin

Title
:Development of the Three-Tower Chemical Looping Coal Combustion Technology
Author
:Shi-Ying Lin; Saito, Tomonao; Hashimoto, Keiichiro;

Abstract :

To protect the environment changing, coal combustion must reduce its CO2 emission by capture and storage. Chemical looping is a potentially high technology for coal combustion with CO2 capture efficiently. A chemical-looping-combustion system, using circulating fluidized bed witch consist two main reactors, a fuel reactor and an air reactor. An oxygen carrier, typically a metal oxide, is employed to transfer oxygen from the air reactor to the fuel reactor, and circulates between these two reactors. During 2012-2014, JCOAL, MHPS (Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems (2012-2013 Babcock-Hitachi)) and IAE(The Institute of Applied Energy) have a project funded by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) to surveyed chemical looping technology development in the world, studied market needs of chemical looping combustion, investigated carrier costs and reactivity, etc., in order to reduce CO2 separation recovery cost to 2,500 yen/ton of CO2 or less. A small-scale re Read more..

Solid Waste Mixtures Combustio ..

Hanfei Zhang

Title
:Solid Waste Mixtures Combustion in a Circulating Fluidized Bed
Author
:Hanfei Zhang; Caixia Lv;

Abstract :

To efficiently and environment friendly combust the domestic garbage, sludge, and swill waste fuels, five different fuels are prepared by mixing the waste fuels together with coal, and grass biomass at different mixing ratios, and finally those fuels were combusted in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor. The emission performances of NOx, dioxin, and heavy metal during the combustion tests are studied. The results showed that a stable furnace temperature can be reached at approximately 850 °C when combusting all studied mixed fuels, benefiting the thermal processes of sludge and domestic garbage and thus realizing the purpose of waste-to-fuel. In addition, the dioxin emissions are much lower than the emission standards, and NOx emissions could be reduced significantly by adjusting the ratio of waste fuels. However, the emissions of mercury, lead, and the combinations of chromium, tin, antimony, cupper and manganese components all exceeded the pollution control standard for Read more..



Berita Terkini BPPT